Trauma is one of the leading causes of death in Iran which occurs daily around the world. Currently about 50% of causes of trauma are due to road traffic accidents. According to WHO reports, if no effective measures are taken this percent would reach 60% by 2020. Trauma usually affects young group who are in their critical period of life. 5 million people die each year due to preventable accidents. Mortalities due to traffic accidents constitute the highest deaths due to unintentional injuries in the world, most of which occur in developing countries. Annually 5 million people die due to preventable accidents. Based on WHO, 5.3 million deaths occur in the world due to road traffic accidents, more than 2 million of which are reported in these countries. These accidents cause more than 50 million of injuries every year. Statistics show that the eleventh leading cause of death and the eighth cause of life lost years (DALYs) are due to road accidents. About 85% of deaths and 90% of life lost years as a result of these injuries occur in low and middle-income countries such as Iran. Injuries due to road traffic accidents in children and youth have been the first cause of death among 10 main causes in age range of 10-14.
What is trauma system?
Trauma system is a concerted and organized effort in a defined geographical area which offers a wide range of health care for all injured patients and is consistent with public and local health systems.
The real value of trauma system lies in perfect transfer in each stage of trauma care and coordination between existing resources to improve patient outcomes. Trauma systems with localization result in efficient use of health care resources. Trauma systems are developed on the unique needs of any population; rural, urban and country. Trauma systems should insist on injury prevention for health of society. Finally, development of nationwide trauma system will provide effective care with ability of improving medical conditions at time of human or natural disasters.
Trauma System Organ
Four main elements of trauma care system include:
The main focus of trauma systems in the future will be injury prevention because of the greatest potential to reduce the financial burden of trauma care, as well as deaths and disabilities.
Pre-hospital care and its availability are basic elements of trauma system and is defined as prompt care of traumatic patients at the scene of accident. Pre-hospital care includes care related to victims which begin at the scene of accident and end in the hospital. Some studies report the end of these services at discharge from hospital. Pre-hospital trauma care includes pre-hospital trauma care providers, trauma information systems, transport facilities and communication systems.
Acute Care Facilities:
Final patient care takes place at different levels of health care system from primary care to highly complicated trauma care. The development of trauma care in any center depends on coordinated care providers which leads to improved care for many patients in similar centers. The improvement of performance must be considered continuously for system promotion.
Post-hospital care is a major step in recovering injured patients and improving their quality of life. Moreover, important infrastructure elements are important to support a comprehensive health care system:
Training and Support